What Are The Current Social Issues In India? We have already written on the most common social issues in india and we keep adding more and more articles regarding the contemporary social issues in india and social problems faced by India. This is an effort to bring to the social evils of India to the notice of as many people as possible. You can contribute and share your views, ideas and articles on "Social Issues" that ail India.
UNICEF released Survive and Thrive Report at Partner’s Forum on 13th December 2018 at New Delhi. According to the report, neonatal deaths take place within the first 28 days of life and account for 62% of all under – 5 deaths in India.
On 22nd August 2017 The Supreme Court of India declared the instant triple talaq or divorce as unconstitutional and arbitrary in a landmark judgment. In a split verdict the three of five judges said that this practice of saying talaq three times in one sitting or over phone, email etc. is the violation of Muslim women’s right to equality and against gender justice.
In recent years lack of awareness among teenagers has resulted in unsafe sexual practices, violence, substance abuse and mental disorders including depression and anxiety. According to UNICEF India’s latest data ,one in three adolescent girls have experienced physical, sexual and emotional violence and 13% have experienced sexual violence by their partner.
I personally dread it. I avoid eye contact. I see that child, hair tangled from years of being on the streets and unwashed, the color of his/her skin is almost unknown because it has been caked by dirt, and don't get me started on their flimsy clothes completely unfit for the cold winter morning.
Over the years, Haryana has a notorious reputation for the state with the lowest sex ratio and rampant girl infanticide. The male child preference has harmed the cause of girls and led people to search for various means to abort the girl child medically or through illegal means.
Tuberculosis, a contagious and airborne disease is a major public health problem in India. It has the highest number of TB cases in the world and accounts for the one fifth of the global TB burden in the world. Each year, more than 2 million people in India get TB.
More than one in five deaths of children under 5 in the world happen in India. More than half of these deaths are due to vaccine preventable and treatable infections such as pneumonia, diarrhea and sepsis. India’s infant mortality rate is 39 meaning about 9.9 lakh babies die within one year of birth mostly from preventable causes.
Tobacco smoking is already a major health problem in India and one that will worsen unless we act. Smoking alone is estimated to cause nearly 10 lakh deaths a year in India. About 1/3rd of Indian men now smoke; the number of women who smoke is lower but the health risks are just as dangerous for both. 70% of deaths from tobacco use occur during middle age when people are still in the most productive part of their lives and not in the old age.
Since time immemorial, child marriage has been one of the greatest evils plaguing India. Marriage is a sacred relationship between two individuals who are ready to accept each other. Child marriage is an abuse of such union and is not permitted by law in India. History has always proven child marriage detrimental for our society.
In recent years India has seen manifold increase in crimes committed by minors. While analyzing the factors responsible for the spurt in crime rate the experts believe that the rural-urban conflict is at the core of these crimes in cities especially underage crimes.
India is one of the developing countries that is grappling through the trade-off between development and environment. India’s annual growth rate, which is approximately 6% led by industrial and manufacturing sectors, come at the cost of industrial pollution.
The socio economic caste census 2011 is the first comprehensive exercise to estimate India’s rural poverty levels. Nearly one of the three people in India’s villages or about 31% of the rural population is poor with an income hardly enough to buy even the bare essentials. Three out of 4 households in rural India earns less than Rs 5000 per month. In more than half the cases 51.8% of the total number of rural families the main income earners barely manage to make both ends meet by working as manual or casual laborers.
According to the Data released by National Sample Survey Office, economic growth may not have touched the lives of these women and water crisis is looming in villages because of overharvesting of ground water.Every second woman in rural India walked an average 173 km to fetch potable water in 2012 making her trek 25 km longer than what it was in 2008-09.
Volunteering is a socio-psychological bridge connecting the self and the individual consciousness to the collective consciousness of the community. On the one hand it is an expression of free will of an individual while on the other it is an expression of a certain set of values imbibed from society values than enable an individual to locate oneself in relation to others. Mahatma Gandhi articulates this identification of self, as "the best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others."
Women have been the victims of violence all through the ages in all societies, cultures, regions and religious communities of the world.In India which claim to have apostle of people and non violence women bear the brunt of violence domestic as well as public, physical and as well as emotional.
For time immemorial women in general been forced to occupy a secondary place in relation to men. Women have been relegated to the margins in spite of the fact that they are numerically half of the world's population.
According to the National Family Health Survey-3, Forty-six per cent of women (between the ages of 18 and 29) in India were married before the age of 18.
A new UNICEF report issued on 15th April 2013 offers evidence that real progress is being made in the fight against stunted growth the hidden face of poverty for 165 million children under the age of five. The report shows that accelerated progress is both possible and necessary.
Globally, nearly one in four children under age 5(165 million or 26 per cent in 2011) are stunted.
The young couples are fast becoming upwardly mobile and rich in Indian cities. But economic prosperity is taking its toll on the marital status and marriages are falling apart.
A UN Report has described India's water pollution situation as a time bomb. India is able to treat just 10% of its city sewage and industrial waste discharge that is the most polluting source for rivers and water bodies.
The Author is a first year LLM student with specialization in Human Rights at National Law School of India University, Bangalore. risk of fetal death nine-fold. Anemia affects 24.7% adult men.
The recent deaths of babies facing cruelty at the hands of relatives have shocked the country. But it is true that gender discrimination is not confined to one particular economic class or section or a community.
India tops the list of highest mortality rate of under –five children in 2011 a new United Nations Global Estimate on child mortality reports.
Mental Health as an issue is neglected in Urban India. According to a survey conducted by ICMR, every 10th Delhiite suffers from psychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia.
Hunger can be defined as an uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food, the want or scarcity of food in a country. World hunger refers to the aggregated to the world level.
A recent report states that anemia affects the urban society as well with one in three teenage girls affected in cities. The main reason being they prefer diet fad or junk food.
According to the recent research data revealed during the launch of British Medical Journal Lancet, on an average six lakh stillbirths take place in India every year.
According to district census officials, the Kishanganj district now has a population of 16, 90,948 against the 12, 96,348 in the year 2001.The district is surging at an annual growth rate of 3 per cent against the nation's 2.5 per cent annual population growth rate.
According to latest census reports, Bihar has a sex- ratio of 916 standing 25th among 35 states and union territories. This figure is a decline of 3 points from the 2001 census. In 1901 the sex ratio of Bihar was 1,061, 57 points ahead of present Kerala and Goa.
The population of the country as per the provisional figures of Census 2011 is 1210.19 million of which 623.7 million (51.54%) are males and 586.46 million (48.46%) are females. The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011.
According to National AIDS Control Organization 2007 estimates ,out of an estimated 2.31 million people with HIV and AIDS in India, women constitutes 39% and children below 15 years stands at 7.8%
India has seen a gradual reduction in maternal mortality and in under 5 child mortality rate over the past few decades. The 11th five year plan sets out the objective of reducing maternal mortality ratio to 1 per 1000 live births
This policy brief summarizes the current state of knowledge on clean birth practices and the potential role for clean birth kits in supporting these preventive practices and for saving lives.
According to a recent report released by National Sample Survey organization, common necessities of life like drinking water, electricity connection and sanitation together are not available to 82% of Indian rural households.
Prescription drugs like the opiate pethidine have replaced cannabis and heroin as the drugs of choice among young people in India. Most teenagers start with cannabis before moving to opiates and prescription drugs.
According to the new measure called the Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) developed by UNDP acute poverty prevails in eight Indian states which includes Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
The changing social system is a universal factor which also brings change in the status of its members. Changes in a particular field have an impact in other realms of the society too.
In recent years the Govt of India has launched the National Rural Health Mission aimed at correcting rural inequities in the matter of health. It seeks to integrate health with those essential inputs in health namely sanitation, hygiene, safe drinking water and nutrition.
Recently Union Urban Development Ministry conducted a survey on safe sanitation practices in Indian cities. A majority of 423 cities were rated on different parameters like absence of visible open defecation
More than 66% of children under the six years in Delhi slums are malnourished. It is more than the children in the sub-Saharan Africa where the figure stands at 38%. India's malnourishment stand at 40%.
The state of the world's mothers 2010 report released on Monday assesses countries on access to education, economic opportunities and maternal and child healthcare. The mother's index is based on the analysis of indicator's of women's and children's health and wellbeing.
The International Labor organization in its report global employment trends 2010 recorded a rise in vulnerable employment in South Asia through 2009 from 76.9% of total employment in 2008 to 78.6% by the third quarter of 2009.
From April 1, 2010 the Right to Education has come into force ensuring free education to more than 92 lakh out of school children in India. The passage of this Act gives every child the right to a quality elementary education.
According to a recent report released by Population Division of the United Nations on Urbanization, over 53% of the world's total urban population of 3.4 billion resides in towns with less than 5 lakh population.
There has been recent spurt in the crimes by juveniles in India. While on one hand the widening rich-poor divide in urban areas and loss of innocence have been pushing minors from poor sections of society into the world of crime
India has recorded highest number of leprosy cases in the world followed by Brazil and Indonesia. While globally in 2008, 2.5 new cases of leprosy were reported, India has 1.37 lakh of those followed by 38,914 cases in Brazil and 17,441 in Indonesia.
Even after so many years of independence, women in India continue to suffer socially as well as economically at different levels and in different forms.Oneof the most horrific violence against women is branding them as witch. Scores of women are regularly killed on charges of witchcraft across the county.
Globally births by caesarean have increased in recent years. While nearly one in every two births in China is delivered by C-section, the rate is around two in five in Thailand and Vietnam and nearly one in five in India.
According to a recent report 'Abortion Worldwide: A decade of uneven Progress' published by US based Guttmacher Institute ,only 2 in 5 of the estimated 6.4 million abortions that take place annually in India are safe.
According to a recent report by Save the Children, an international NGO one –fifths of the world's new born deaths occur in India. The survey done in 14 countries reveal that countries like Peru, Bangladesh and Nepal have done better than India in terms of neo-natal mortality.
Khap is a cluster of villages united by caste and geography.It is as old as 14th century started by upper caste jats to consolidate their power and position.The main rule is that all boys and girls within a khap are considered siblings.
The third edition of the Tobacco Atlas released in Dublin by the American Cancer Society and World Lung Foundation says that more women in India are turning smokers and oral users of tobacco. India has the third highest number of female tobacco users in the world.
According to a recent Indian government committee constituted to estimate poverty, nearly 38% of India's population (380 million) is poor. This report is based on new methodology and the figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of 28.5%.
Public health system in India suffers from many problems which includes insufficient funding, shortage of facilities leading to overcrowding and severe shortage of trained health personnel.
Gender analysis is a way of seeing/analyzing problems, situations and solutions with awareness of gender relations and in order to identify gender issues. The key elements of a gender analysis should include identification of similarities and differences between men and women and amongst women.
Child abuse is usually classified into three major types: physical, sexual and emotional. Each has recognizable characteristics. The indicators of physical abuse in the child are bruises, burns, fractures, lacerations and abrasions, abdominal injuries and human bite marks.
The 11 to 19 year old age is called adolescence. This is the period of rapid change and maturation when the child grows into the adult. This is one of the most enjoyable stages of one's life and it has to be experienced with joy and friendship paving the way for building a healthy society with good social relationships.
According to a recent survey done by Samajik Suvidha Sangam Society under the aegis of the Delhi govt, New Delhi, the capital city has 2.42 lakh children out of school.
UNICEF released the State of World's Children Report- 2009 with some shocking findings regarding maternal mortality status in India. Avoidable complications during child birth are killing 78,000 women in India every year. One woman dies from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth every seven minutes.
To be young and in love has proved fatal for many young girls and boys in parts of north India as an intolerant and bigoted society refuses to accept any violation of its rigid code of decorum, especially when it comes to women.
India's greatest wealth lies in its human resources. Universal schooling of decent quality could be the single biggest move it makes towards future prosperity. Towards this end the Government has come up with Right to Education Bill which promises free education for every child in the 6-14 age- group.
It is an open truth that working women have to face problems just by virtue of their being women. Working women here are referred to those who are in paid employment. Social attitude to the role of women lags much behind the law.
Nearly 100 infants in Madhya Pradesh's tribal districts of Satna and Khandwa have been reported in 2008 aggravated by malnutrition and hunger. More than 60% of MP's children are malnourished according to the official National Health Survey conducted in 2006.
In spite of certain outstanding examples of individual achievement of Indian woman and a definite improvement in their general condition over the last one hundred years, it remains true that our woman still constitute a large body of under - privileged citizens. Women of course do not form a homogenous group in class or caste terms.
The 2001 census of India reveals a decline in the overall child sex ratio for the age-group 0-6 years from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001.Contrary to the belief that the malaise is typical to rural ,backward areas, urban centers more literate and liberal have shown a drop from 935 in 1991 to 906 in 2001.
Over 250 crore people across the world lack access to improved sanitation, with nearly 120 crore practising open defecation, the riskiest sanitary practice of all.
A recent study done on commercial sex workers working in Delhi's red light area have come up with some revealing facts. More than 41% women sex workers in the capital's GB road enter the profession because of sheer poverty, 39% of their own free will.
It is now generally recognized that alcohol like the opium products is a narcotic. But alcoholism constitutes a special problem because of the wider use of alcohol and because of its entrenchment in the social customs.
Delinquency is a kind of abnormality when an individual deviates from the course of normal social life. His behaviour is called 'Delinquency'.
Systematic discrimination against girls and women in the world's poorest countries will prevent the United Nations from meeting its goals to reduce poverty. Girls and women were more likely to be poor, hungry, illiterate or sick than boys and men.
India's attempts to reduce infant mortality rate has been insufficient according to International standards. According to a report brought out by the International Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health an organization comprising about 240 members such as UNICEF
Summers are here and the cities in India are already complaining about water shortage not to mention many villages which lack safe drinking water. In the list of 122 countries rated on quality of portable water, India ranks a lowly 120.
Child malnutrition is a biggest challenge our country is facing today even when the economy is said to surging ahead. Every second child under three in the country is malnourished.The number for under five children is 55 million which is two and half times the population of Australia.
A man's life is normally divided into five main stages namely infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. In each of these stages an individual has to find himself in different situations and face different problems.
The Great Wheat panic of 2007 saw global prices shoot up by over 92% during the year. Rice and corn prices also rose as sharply. Food riots have been reported from Kolkata to Namibia, Zimbabwe, Morocco, Uzbekistan, Austria, Hungary and Mexico.
According to a Human Resource Development Ministry statement on Millennium Development Goals governments set for themselves in the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000, the eight goals pledged by 19 governments translate into 18 targets with 48 indicators.
India @ Risk 2007, a report published during the India Economic Summit, 2007 has revealed following important facts:
India is the world's TB capital recording an estimated 1.9 million new cases every year. However only 70% of these are actually detected and put on the highly effective DOTS programme. Each of these active TB patients left undetected goes on to infect 10-15 people on an average every year.
According to Census 2001, Kishanganj is least female literate district of the country and only 18 per cent of girls are educated. In fact, the situation is still more or less same and the percentage of female literacy has not increased satisfactorily over the years.
India has earned itself the dubious distinction of having the world's highest number of polio cases in just 2 months of 2008.According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative Data ,India has recorded 82 polio cases till Feb 27.In comparison three other countries Nigeria
According to Human Rights Watch, there are approximately 15 million prostitutes in India. There are more than 100,000 women in prostitution in Bombay, Asia's largest sex industry center. Girls in prostitution in India, Pakistan and the Middle East are tortured, held in virtual imprisonment, sexually abused, and raped.
Associated with the problems of poverty and unemployment is the problem of beggary which is a social problem of great magnitude and grave concern in developing countries. Begging is a problem for society in as much as a large number of beggars means non utilization of available human resources and drag upon the existing resources of the society.
India is affected by severe floods on an average, every third year. Out of the total geographical area of 329 million hectare more than 40 mha is prone to floods. On an average floods affect 75 lakh hectare of land and result in a loss of more than 1600 lives annually.
Over 32000 murders, 19,000 rapes, 7500 dowry deaths and 36500 molestation cases are the violent crimes reported in India in 2006 against women. There are many instances of crime especially against women go unreported in India. These are figures released by the National Crime Records Bureau recently.
According to Pratham's Annual Survey of Education Report, 2007 there is a considerable decline in the percentage of out-of -school children in the age-group of 6-14 from 6.6% in 2006 to 4.2% in 2007.The report is based on the analysis of data collected from 562 out of 584 districts.
India has earned itself the dubious distinction of having the world's highest number of polio cases in just 2 months of 2008.According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative Data ,India has recorded 82 polio cases till Feb 27.
India as a nation is facing a new problem concerning its children- emergence of children as soldiers in strife -torn states of Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, AndhraPradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Nagaland and Assam.
Total number of people living with HIV-33.2m, Adult living with HIV-30.8m, Women living with HIV-15.4m
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in north-eastern states is becoming heterosexual in nature.It is an ominous sign for India's AIDS control programme.Experts from NACO have evidences of intravenous drug-users in the north-eastern states infecting their partners with HIV by having unprotected sex.Nagaland has already reported such a trend.
India,Nigeria and Pakistan account for 27% of the world's out of school children.As for adult literacy less than 60% of the total adult populaion in South and West Asia -India,Bangladesh and Pakistan can read and write with understanding.This was revealed in UNESCO's Education for All Global monitoring report-2007 released this week.
India has among the highest numbers of hungry children in the world-nearly double that of sub-Saharan Africa. Even Ethiopia is placed ahead of India (94th) in the Global Hunger Index 2007 of 118 countries by the International Food Policy Research Institute.
India's rural health centers are critically short of trained medical personnel. The country's 22,669 primary health centers are in sorry state of affairs increasing people's suffering.
The UN and WHO cut their estimates of the number of people with HIV to 6.3 million, after a revision by India. The latest estimates show these are 33.2 million with HIV globally. It is 16% less than the 39.5 million it estimated in 2006 clearly showing that the global burden of HIV till now was highly overstated.
In the latest gender gap index report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF) India keeps company with the worst in the world. Among the 128 countries that have been evaluated by the WEF India ranked 114 followed among others by Yemen, Chad, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
More than 59% children born every year are not registered with any civil authority making them invisible. Only 27% under the age of 5 years have a birth certificate. This fact has been highlighted by National Family Health Survey III - India's social survey carried out in 29 states during 2005-06.
In recent years more and more married couples in India are walking away from their marriages. Court figures and data from crime record bureau reveal that over the past decade, divorce rates have doubled and in some cities even trebled. This trend is evident not just in metropolises but in smaller cities and semi-urban areas as well.
At a time when the country is facing a shortage of educational institutions, over 32,000 schools do not have a single student a government survey has revealed.
India's education system is mired in corruption and a high rate of teacher absenteeism in the country was a key factor for it according to the new global study. The UNESCO's International Institute of Educational Planning study on corruption in education released recently says that 25% teacher absenteeism in India is among the highest in the world
The life is very difficult for HIV/AIDS affected children in India who face discrimination at schools, home and even in their neighborhood. A study by UNICEF, the National AIDS Control Organization and the ministry for Women and Child Development says that such children are teased, shunned, shouted or ignored.
Rural sanitation in India has doubled from low of 22% to a high of 44% in recent past. It is held that toilet or lack of it is the indicator of a country's health. The total sanitation campaign launched by government of India has stretched to the last of the 597 districts to turn the rural landscape free from squatting.
In recent years more and more married couples in India are walking away from their marriages. Court figures and data from crime record bureau reveal that over the past decade, divorce rates have doubled and in some cities even trebled. This trend is evident not just in metropolises but in smaller cities and semi-urban areas as well.
The purpose of NRHM among other things was to strengthen the primary health centres (PHCs) and subcentres and creates a network of rural hospitals. However it was felt that several developments since the launch of the NRHM in April 2005 point to increased privatization of health care services.
India's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is highest in South Asia: 540 deaths per 100,000 live births or one woman dying roughly every five minutes. An estimated 1, 36,000 women die in India every year due to pregnancy related setbacks.
Five million girls were eliminated between 1986 and 2001 because of foetal sex determination done by unethical medical professionals. The rate of extermination continues to increase after census 2001.Sex determination and sex selective abortion was traced to an Amritsar clinic in 1979 and has now grown into an Rs.1000 -crore country wide industry.
According to the latest National Sample Survey Organization (NASSO) Kerala tops the list of states in terms of literacy while the rural areas of Bihar have the worst literacy rate even as around 50% of people in the age-group of 5-29 years have not gone to any educational institution.
Indian women are facing another kind of mental and physical trauma especially in the states of Punjab, Gujarat and Haryana where incidences of fraudulent NRI marriages is on the rise. Every month hundreds of cases are being reported in the media.
Publishing misleading data will not help the government achieve universal elementary education.
India's economy has undergone a substantial transformation since the country's independence in 1947. Agriculture now accounts for only one-third of the gross domestic product (GDP), down from 59 percent in 1950, and a wide range of modern industries and support services now exist.
Literacy is an effective instrument for social and economic development and national integration. It is defined in Census operations, as the ability to read and write with understanding in any language. Any formal education or minimum educational standard is not necessary to be considered literate.
The Government of India had ushered in the new millennium by declaring the year 2001 as 'Women's Empowerment Year' to focus on a vision 'where women are equal partners like men'. The most common explanation of 'women's empowerment' is the ability to exercise full control over one's actions.
June 26 is celebrated as International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking every year. It is an exercise undertaken by the world community to sensitize the people in general and the youth in particular, to the menace of drugs.
Dowry is derived from the ancient Hindu customs of "kanyadan" and "stridhan". In "kanyadan", the father of the bride offers the father of the groom money or property, etc. whereas for "stridhan", the bride herself gets jewelry and clothes at the time of her marriage, usually from her relatives or friends.
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus). It is a condition in which the built in defense system of the body breaks down completely.
The world has a population of 6 billion. As of March 2001, the total population of India was a little over 1 billion -- 1,027,015,247 to be exact (531,277,078; female: 495,738,169). Of this number, 157,863,145 are children up to the age of six years (81,911,041 males and 75,952,104 females).
Millions of children in today's world undergo the worst forms of child labor which includes Child Slavery, Child prostitution, Child Trafficking, Child Soldiers. In modern era of material and technological advancement, children in almost every country are being callously exploited.
To correct the male-female sex-ratio and limit the family size the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India has come up with a novel scheme of providing free ships and scholarships to all girls from single child families up to the post-graduate level.
Maternal death is defined as death of women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management. The maternal mortality ratio is maternal death per 100,000 live births in one year.
India as a nation is faced with massive problem of unemployment. Unemployment can be defined as a state of worklessness for a man fit and willing to work. It is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness.
According to the recent UNICEF report titled "Childhood under Threat" over one billion children have been denied their childhood. Many factors including widespread poverty and AIDS have failed to fulfill the goals on their improvement.
Women are facing devastating impact of HIV/AIDS in world over. In India women are already economically, culturally and socially disadvantaged lacking access to treatment, financial support and education.
Bihar is sitting on the time bomb of AIDS epidemic. It is revealed by recent surveys which show that the HIV prevalence rate in Bihar is about five times higher than what was believed to be and eight populous districts in the state are in grip of HIV epidemic.
Trafficking is defined as a trade in something that should not be traded in for various social, economic or political reasons.Thus we have terms like drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking. The concept of human trafficking refers to the criminal practice of exploiting human beings by treating them like commodities for profit.
Sociologically the word gender refers to the socio-cultural definition of man and woman, the way societies distinguish men and women and assign them social roles. The distinction between sex and gender was introduced to deal with the general tendency to attribute women's subordination to their anatomy.
The above lines reflect the brutality that one out of every three women has to face at the hands of their husbands, fathers, brothers and uncles in their homes around the globe. Domestic violence can be article_titleribed as when one adult in a relationship misuses power to control another.
During the past four decades, the environment and natural resources in the developed and developing nations have come under intense pressure. People's health and longevity have suffered, natural resource-based livelihoods have been compromised, and ecosystem services and resources that underpin long-term economic development are at risk.
Urbanization is an important index of socio-economic structure of a region as urban centers have special role to play in its development. In statistical sense, urbanization connotes to the ratio of urban population to the total population size, its characteristics and the administrative setup of a particular area. Statistics reveal that nearly half the world's population lives in cities.
Of the 52 lakh HIV infected persons in India only 46,000 receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) crucial to prevent them from developing AIDS. According to affidavit filled by NACO before Supreme Court in response to the PIL by NGOs accusing the government of slow action in preventing HIV infected persons from becoming victims of AIDS.
According to latest UN report (2006) HIV infection is rising in every region of the world and mostly in countries like Uganda and Thailand which had been traditionally seen as success stories in the fight against AIDS. Nearly 40 million adults and children are infected worldwide.
As India races towards achieving superpowerdom, its children are still far behind in terms of healthcare, education and other facilities. Children especially girls are faced with lack of educational opportunities, malnourishment, infant mortality and early marriages.
Crime against children increased by 3.8% nationally (14,975 cases in 2005 from 14,423 in 2004).Child rape increased by 13.7% (4,026 cases from 3,542 in 2004); Madhya Pradesh reported the highest number (870) followed by Maharashtra (634).Together they accounted for 37.3% of rape cases.
India as a nation has seen a high migration rate in recent years. Over 98 million people migrated from one place to another in 1990s, the highest for any decade since independence according to the 2001 census details. However in 1970s migration was slowing down.